Product Name : Andrographis Powder Extract
Latin name: Andrographis paniculata
Chinese Name: Chuan Xin Lian
Country of Origin :
Andrographis paniculata is traditionally known as kalmegh. The plant belongs to family Acanthaceae and is widely used in Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicine1. The plant grows in waste grounds and prefers moist habitat. The herb is bitter in taste and has weak odor. The herb of Andrographis paniculata is an erect, annual and sometimes it assumes height of shrub also. The flowers of the plant are insignificant and of dirty pink color .In Ayurveda the drug has been described as antipyretic and hepatoprotective. Cold infusion of the drug is mentioned in Sushruta Samhita for fever and liver disorders. The plant has been used as a bitter tonic and a febrifuge. Recent research has thrown light on medicinal value of the plant.
There are four lactones in Andrographis paniculata: deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, neoandrographolide and deoxydidehydroandrographolide . Andrographolide and total lactone are the common forms used in clinics. Animal studies on rat and mice conclude that all four lactones have anti-inflammatory through stimulating the adrenal gland and anti-pyretic effect1. The most active constituent and standardization is based on Andrographolide. The standardized extract contains 50%-95% of Andrographoilde. Andrographlide,was first isolated from Andrographis by Boorsma in 18963. In 1911, Corter identified this compound a Lactone 2The most significant pharmacological activities are anti-allergic, anti HIV, anti-inflammatory and anti-infection effects.
The herb is traditionally reported to possess astringent, anodyne, tonic and alexipharmic properties and is helpful in dysentery, cholera, diabetes, influenza, bronchitis, piles, gonorrhoea, hepatomegaly, skin disorders, fever and worm infestation. It is bitter, acrid, cooling, laxative, vulnerary, antiperiodic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, depurative, digestive and stomachic. It is useful in burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, leprosy, pruritis, flatulence, colic and diarrhoea1,3.
1. Hepatoprotective activity
Andrographolide prevent BHC induced increase in the activities of enzymes y-Glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the levels of glutathione were decreased following BHC effect. Administration of Andrographolide showed protective effects in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase as well as the level of glutathione. The activity of lipid peroxidase was also decreased. This result indicates antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of A. paniculata 4
Alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata was obtained by cold maceration. A dose of 300 mg/kg (1/6 of LD50) of the extract was selected to study hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. The extract was found to be effective in preventing liver damage which was evident by morphological, biochemical and functional parameters5.
Andrographolidefrom the herb Andrographis paniculata produces a significant dose (1.5-12 mg/kg) dependent choleretic effect (4.8-73%) as evidenced by increase in bile flow, bile salt, and bile acids in conscious rats and anaesthetized guinea pigs. The paracetamol induced decrease in volume and content of bile was prevented significantly by andrographolide pretreatment. It was found to be more potent than silymarin, a clinically used hepatoprotective agent6.
2. Reducing Cold Symptoms
A study measured the effectiveness of andrographolide, compared against a placebo, in lessening the symptoms associated with common cold. With a patient group of 158 male and female adults, the effects of andrographolide was measured on days 0, 2, and 4 of the treatment. On day 2, the patient group taking andrographolide displayed reductions in several of the associated symptoms, and on day 4, the same group was shown to have significant reductions in all of the symptoms as compared to the placebo group. In conclusion, andrographolide had a high degree of effectiveness in reducing the prevalence and intensity of the symptoms in uncomplicated common cold beginning at day two of treatment. No adverse effects were reported 4.
In another study conducted by Cres·Hancke ; et al., one group of students in a rural school was given a placebo and another was given Kan Jang, a formulation of Andrographis paniculata from the Swedish Herbal Institute, and then observed to see how many colds occurred over a three month period. A dose of 200 mg a day was given to the study group, and after 1 month no significant difference was recorded. But after three months, significant variances occurred. The Kan Jang group was 2.1 times less likely to catch a cold than the placebo group. They had a rate of incidence of 30 percent, compared to 62 percent in the placebo group3
So far known Andrographolide is a hepatoprotective, antiplatelet and antithrombotic drug. In experiment its hypoglycaemic effect has been tried in various ways. Water extract of AP 10 mg/kg body weight can prevent induction of hyperglycaemia significantly (P < 0.001) induced by oral administration of glucose 2 mg/kg body weight. But anyhow failed to do so in adrenalin induced hyperglycaemia. It also failed to demonstrate any "fasting blood sugar lowering effect" upon chronic administration (6 weeks) of Andrographolide. So probably Andrographolide prevents glucose absorption from gut7.
4. Anti-fertility activity
Anti-fertility effect of Andrographolide was observed in mice under different experimental conditions. When Andrographolide was mixed with animal's food (Rats Pelletts) in a dose of 2g/ kg. B.W. per day and was allowed to consume by the female mice daily for a period of six weeks, none of the animal (100%) were pregnant when mated with the male of proven fertility who did not receive the drug. On the other hand, the majority of the control female mice (95.2%) who did not receive the drug were pregnant when mated with the similar type of male as in the experimental group, and they continued to give birth to litters of usual size and number (average 5-6) for subsequent six matings8.
5. Cardiovascular activity
To observe the effects of Andrographolide on nitric oxide, endothelin, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lipid peroxide and superoxide dismutase in experimental atherosclerotic rabbit model was established by feeding high cholesterol diet supplemented by bovine serum albumin injection bolus. The rabbits were randomly divided into the control, model, and Andrographolide treated group. Blood samples were collected before 4 weeks and 8 weeks after relevant treatment. Before 4 and after 8 weeks Andrographolide administration, compared with model group, the nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate and activity of superoxide dimutase increased, while lipid peroxide and endothelin decreased .it was concluded that Andrographolide possesses the effects of antioxidation, preserving endothelial function, and maintaining the balance of nitric oxide/endothelin 9.
6. Psycho- pharmacological activity
Psychopharmacological studies were conducted on Andrographolide. The extract exhibited a significant alteration in behavior pattern and a reduction in spontaneous motility. The extract also produced a prolongation of the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and lowered the body temperature in different experimental animal models 9. 7. Anti-HIV activity
A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 (+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial. Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was 5-mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10-mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks and to 20-mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. A significant rise in the mean CD4 (+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm (3) to 501 cells/mm (3); p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4 (+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals 10.
200mg-300mg of Andrographolide daily in 2-3 times is recommended for relieving cold and fever symptoms. Doses as high as 1,000 to 2,000 mg 3 times daily have been used in some studies. Andrographis is usually standardized to its content of andrographolide, typically 4 to 6%. 11
An acute toxicity study reported that the LD50 of Andrographis paniculata is too high to be determined. A chronic toxicity study on dogs showed no pathological changes after administering 15 times the clinical dosage of Andrographolide. 12 Andrographolide has not been associated with any side effects in human studies, although animal studies raise concerns about its effects on fertility. In one study, participants were monitored for changes in liver function, blood counts, kidney function, and other laboratory measures of toxicity.7 No problems were found.
Chemistry The primary active ingredient in Andrographis paniculata is andrographolide, although two Chinese texts list a broader range of 6 additional constituents. The ingredients other than andrographolide are neoandrographolide; paniculide A, B, & C; 14-deoxy-11-oxoandrographolide; and 14-deoxy-11-dehydroandrographolide.
Specification: Andrographolide 5.0%
1. Zhong Yao Cultivation of Andrographis paniculata. Tong Bao 1987 Jun;12(6):15-18
2. Chen JH, Jiang RL. Morphological and histological studies on Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees. and comparison with four other Acanthaceae herbs. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1980 Dec;15(12):750-760.
3. 3.Hu CQ, Zhou BN. Isolation and structure of two new diterpenoid glucosides from Andrographis paniculata Nees. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1982 Jun;17(6):435-440
4. Trivedi NP, Rawal UM. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in BHC induced liver damage in mice. Zoology Department, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, India. Indian J Exp Biol 2001 Jan;39(1):41-46.
5. hukla B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Choleretic effect of andrographolide in rats and guinea pigs. ICMR Centre for Advanced Pharmacological Research on Traditional Remedies, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Planta Med 1992 Apr;58(2):146-149.
6. Rana AC, Avadhoot Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. College of Pharmacy, Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, India. Arch Pharm Res 1991 Mar;14(1):93-95.
7. Borhanuddin M, Shamsuzzoha M, Hussain AH. Hypoglycaemic effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on non-diabetic rabbits. Dhaka Medical College, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1994 Apr;20(1):24-26.
8. Research Group of Sichuan Provincial Herb Institute. Use A. paniculata I, II, and III to Treat Acute Infections. Sichuan Chinese Herb News. 1973, No.2: 16,17,40
9. Research Group of Sichuan Provincial Herb Institute. Use A. paniculata I, II, and III to Treat Acute Infections. Sichuan Chinese Herb News. 1973, No.2: 16,17,40
Chan RS, Ding L, Chen GQ, Pan QC, Zhao ZL, Smith KM. Dehydroandrographolide succinic acid monoester as an inhibitor against the human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1991 May; 197(1): 59-66.
10. Hancke J, et al. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: Decrease of symptoms and improvements in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 9: 559562, 1995.
11. Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized double blind-placebo study. Phytomedicine 6(4): 217223, 1999.
12. Hancke J, et al. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: Decrease of symptoms and improvements in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 9: 559562, 1995.